Confucius: "It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop".

lunes, 11 de diciembre de 2017

Mi mascota y yo

En casa estamos solos mi mascota y yo. Yo me paso el día fuera, en el trabajo, y al volver, en cuanto me oye entrar, viene corriendo a saludarme moviendo la cabeza y la cola en señal de reconocimiento. Después de cenar, para compensarla, todas las noches, mientras yo me siento en el balcón a observar las estrellas, dejo que ella salga por ahí y se desfogue. Es el único momento en que puedo dejar que mi mascota vuele sin que la vean los vecinos. Después, al cabo de un rato, silbo y mi dragón regresa conmigo.

Luis Goróstegui, Mi mascota y yo.

domingo, 10 de diciembre de 2017

4º CC.SS. - TEMA 3 - Factory Act



Benjamin Disraeli (Sybil, or the Two Nations, 1845): "Two nations; between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy; who are as ignorant of each other's habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones, or inhabitants of different planets; who are formed by a different breeding, are fed by a different food, are ordered by different manners, and are not governed by the same laws . . . . THE RICH AND THE POOR".


Factory Act (1832) improved conditions for children working in factories:
- no child workers under nine years of age
- employers must have an age certificate for their child workers
- children of 9-13 years to work no more than nine hours a day
- children of 13-18 years to work no more than 12 hours a day
- children are not to work at night
- two hours schooling each day for children
- four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law

Mines Act (1842) prohibited all females and boys under ten years old from working underground in coal mines.

Ten Hours Act (1847) restricted the working hours of women and young persons (13-18) in textile mills to 10 hours per day.

Bank Holidays Act (1871) established the first bank holidays in the United Kingdom.

2º CC.SS. - TEMA 4 - Romanesque Art

1.- Match each definition to what it describes: apse – apsidiole – semi-circular arch – groin vault – barrel vault – capital – dome – crossing – ambulatory – Latin cross floor plan – bell tower – transept – triforium – side nave

  • Arch used to attach the pillars to the walls:
  • Shorter section of the Latin cross floor plan:
  • Semi-circular dome divided into sections by arches:
  • The intersection of two barrel vaults:
  • Small, semicircular structure surrounding the apse:
  • Element that facilitated the movement of pilgrims around the church:
  • Part located above the crossing, with openings to illuminate the interior:
  • Semi-circular area at the top part of the cross where the altar was found:
  • Structure next to the main entrance, used to announce the time for prayer or as a watchtower:
  • Place where the two sections of the Latin cross met:
  • Top of a column, usually decorated:
  • Passageway to either side of the nave that is separated from the central nave by colonnades or arcades:
  • Church floor plan with unequal lengths:
  • Tribune located above the two aisles of the church:


2.- What were the main subjects of Romanesque art?

3.- Say whether the following statements about Romanesque painting are true or false:

  • The functions of Romanesque painting were didactic, moralising and decorative.
  • Romanesque architecture was less important than painting.
  • Romanesque painting was technically very complicated. It had no depth, figures were done with thick outlines, people were forward-facing and hieratic. Scenes were always adapted to the architectural framework.
  • A Romanesque painter left little or no empty space (horror vacui).
  • The most common motifs were scenes from the Bible and the lives of saints.
  • Romanesque painting was only done on the walls of churches (frescos).


4.- Correct the sentences.

  • Frescos were painted onto dry plaster.
  • There are many Romanesque paintings of life in cities.
  • Religious books were decorated with panel paintings.


5.- Choose the correct answer: What is an illuminated manuscript?

  • The type of light used to copy a manuscript. The monks only worked the hours that the sun illuminated the scriptorium.
  • A text that is supplemented with decoration such as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
  • A type of mural painting done using only colors made with gold or silver.


6.- Match each description to the motif painted in apses (Pantocrator or Theotokos):

  • Christ within a mandorla.
  • Christ in the act of blessing.
  • Four evangelists or tetramorfos.
  • The Infant Jesus.
  • The Virgin Mary.


7.- What characteristics did Romanesque sculpture have?

8.-Say whether the following statements about Romanesque sculpture are true or false:

  • Sculptures were made only in stone.
  • Expressive figures that had movement and perspective.
  • Hieratic, rigid figures without perspective.
  • Figures organised hierarchically and geometrically according to importance.
  • Independent of architecture.
  • Subject to architecture.
  • Carvings made of wood and brightly-coloured polychrome.





viernes, 8 de diciembre de 2017

Encuesta electoral clandestina en la España de 1970

De un informe político de FOESSA —interceptado por la censura— tras diversas calas efectuadas en distintos sectores y zonas del país:

Pregunta: Si hubiera partidos y elecciones libres, ¿a quién votaría usted?

Respuesta: Carlistas 2%; Falange 7%; Movimiento 14%; Democristianos 27%; Socialdemócratas 25%; Socialistas 16%; Regionalistas 2%; Comunistas y otras organizaciones de extrema izquierda 7%. ¿Por qué entonces la política y la contrapolítica del país las hacen desde hace siglos los extremos?

Miguel Delibes, Un año de mi vida, Destino, Barcelona, 1972.

jueves, 7 de diciembre de 2017

2º CC.SS. - TEMA 4 - Escultura y pintura románicas





2º CC.SS. - TEMA 4 - Iglesia románica


Completa las cartelas en blanco con cada uno de los siguientes elementos de una iglesia románica: torres de la fachada, nave central, nave lateral, bóveda de cañón, cimborrio, portada, ábside, ventana.

martes, 5 de diciembre de 2017

4º CC.SS. - TEMA 3 - Activities

Activities

lunes, 4 de diciembre de 2017

Sólo deseo borrar todo lo escrito sobre ti


Nos conocimos en el curso del 86, en bachillerato. Desde el principio nuestra relación fue intensa, íntima, sensual. No podíamos evitar vivir nuestros días bajo un torbellino de caricias apasionadas.

Pero los descerebrados de turno no lo podían permitir. Ellos solo acudían a clase para meterse con nosotros. Éramos su entretenimiento preferido. Nos humillaban constantemente. A mí me tiraban al suelo entre burlas y risas. Dedicándose después a escribir obscenidades sobre ella.

En más de una ocasión intenté enfrentarme, abalanzarme encima de ellos, pero no resultaba tan fácil, eran más. Y además, ella, mi amor, una pizarra. Y yo, un simple borrador sin alas.

Javier Puchades, Sólo deseo borrar todo lo escrito sobre ti.

domingo, 3 de diciembre de 2017

4º CC.SS. - TEMA 3 - Activities

1.- Complete:
- The _____________  _____________ refers to the population growth that started in Europe in around 1750.
- The population growth was caused by the _____________ in _____________ production and, later on, improvements in _____________ and hygiene.
- The improvements in nutrition put an end to the _____________  _____________ and made the population more resistant to _____________. The mortality rate _____________ and the birth rate remained the same or _____________ slightly.
- There was an increase in _____________  _____________, which was _____________ years in the late 18th century and _____________ years by the end of the 19th century.
- Demographic growth in Europe started in _____________  _____________.
- The population of _____________ grew from _____________ million in 1750 to _____________ million in 1800 and 266 million in 1850.

2.- Listen and answer the questions:
a) How were the labour conditions at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?
b) When did boys and girls of working families leave school?
c) How long did the work last?

3.- Listen and answer the questions
a) When did the Industrial Revolution begin?
b) Why was the expansion of the Industrial Revolution possible in England?
c) Why did the agricultural workers move to the cities?

4.- Listen and answer:
Indicate which class of bourgeoisie is described in each sentence:
1) It was made up of business owners, bankers and big landowners:
a) high bourgeoisie.
b) middle bourgeoisie.
c) petty bourgeoisie.
2) It was made up of professionals (lawyers, doctors, etc.), civil servants and merchants:
a) high bourgeoisie.
b) middle bourgeoisie.
c) petty bourgeoisie.
3) It consisted of employees, shopkeepers and artisans:
a) high bourgeoisie.
b) middle bourgeoisie.
c) petty bourgeoisie.
4) It was the new ruling class:
a) high bourgeoisie.
b) middle bourgeoisie.
c) petty bourgeoisie.
5) Their living conditions scarcely differed from those of the proletariat:
a) high bourgeoisie.
b) middle bourgeoisie.
c) petty bourgeoisie.
6) They replaced the aristocracy in social life:
a) high bourgeoisie.
b) middle bourgeoisie.
c) petty bourgeoisie.

5.- Listen and answer the questions:
a) Who were the Luddites?
b) What was the role of relief societies?
c) When was the first workers’ association founded?
d) When was the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union founded? What were its tasks?

6.- Listen and answer the questions:
a) What were they requesting?
b) What arguments did they use?

7.- Listen and answer the questions:
a) In which economic system does economic liberalism have its theoretical basis?
b) Which thinker is considered the father of economic liberalism?
c) What are the basic principles of economic liberalism?
d) What does economic liberalism say about state intervention?

viernes, 1 de diciembre de 2017

El día en que Francisca entró en el mundo

Cuatro años tenía Francisca, hija de Alonso Rodríguez y de María de la Cámara. Cuatro años cuando entró a servir, en 1636, en la casa de su tío Cristóbal Rodríguez de Moya. Era de Torredonjimeno y a Jaén la llevaron sus padres. Al pasar el zaguán, Francisca no sabía que allí permanecería, si Dios no disponía otra cosa, los siguientes dieciséis años. Después ya se vería. Incierta era la vida para saber lo que vendría con el tiempo. Los padres recibirían 2.000 maravedíes por año. Una paga que, sin ser mucha, era superior a la habitual, dada su relación familiar, pues "sigún la costumbre que se tiene de ganar las mozas de serbicio, no se les dé más de hasta tres ducados cada año". También recibiría vestido, manutención y todo lo necesario, correspondiente "a su hedad, estado y calidad". Nunca sabremos si se despidieron de ella con alivio o con pena. Ese día, sin saberlo, Francisca -cuatro años, pariente pobre, hija de Alonso y de María- entró en el mundo. Aquí comenzaron los quehaceres de la niña. Al principio muy pocos. Después barrería, limpiaría vidriados, bruñiría el cobre, despabilaría velones, acompañaría a misa a su tía y, con el buen tiempo, ayudaría a desesterar las estancias. Así, como sin darse cuenta, vería pasar tras los cristales los lentos días del siglo XVII.

Ángel Aponte Marín

Retablo de la vida antigua